High blood pressure; symptoms, causes and treatment

Treatment High blood pressure SymptomHigh blood pressure. High blood pressure or hypertension as it is medically known is basically the elevation of systolic or diastolic pressure in arteries. This may be of two forms primary which has no known etiology or secondary in cases where there is already an underlying disease which causes the increase in blood pressure. Blood pressure is basically arterial resistance to blood flow. When we talk about the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, they are in direct reference to the cardiac cycle. A systole is when the heart is in depolarization or when the heart contracts to push blood through the left ventricle into the aorta and eventually other arteries of the body. The diastole in contrast is the stage in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in repolarization or relaxation in this phase the mitral and tricuspid valves separating the left and right ventricles from the left and right atriums open and allow the blood to flow into them for the eventually systole to take pace again.

The optimal blood pressures for any body is 120-135mmhg for systolic and between 60-85mmhg for diastolic. Sustained values above this interval in a resting state and without the influence of any other external factors for either systolic or diastolic can confirm a diagnosis of arterial hypertension or high blood pressure.

Causes of high blood pressure; some of the basic causes of hypertension are as follows: BP increases with aging, diastolic BP increases with aging, but reaches maximal values between 55 and 60 years Arterial stiffness: leads to high systolic BP, but also low diastolic BP. Other risk factors which predispose a patient to hypertension are ; age, heredity, obesity, hypercolesterolemie, smoking, increased dietary sodium intake, increased fluid volume leading, and carbon dioxide poisoning which causes vasoconstriction and many more. Other causes of hypertension include the secondary causes of hypertension which include situation such as an abnormal sodium transport across the cell walls causing a dysfunction of the sodium potassium pump, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, or a dysfunction n the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system causing reno-vascular hypertension.Symptoms of high blood pressure; primary hypertension is asymptomatic until complications develop in the target organs for eg( left ventricular failure, artherosclerotic heart disease, cerebrovascular insufficience with or without stroke and renal failure). Incases of hypertensive encephalopathy or a hypertensive crisis in which case the blood pressure is >190mmhg systolic and >100mmhg diastolic the patient may exhibit symptoms such as dizziness, flushed faces, headache, fatigue, epistaxis or nose bleeds nervousness. A fourth heart sound and a broad , notched Pwave on the ECG are the first signs in clinical setting suggesting a hypertensive heart disease.

Treatment for high blood pressure; nowadays there are lots and lots of treatment options available to physicians to treat hypertension, there are classes of drugs ranging from beta blockers, to ACE inhibitors to calcium channel blockers which are all very efficient in treating hypertension. Dietary reduction of slat intake, and exercise also form corner stones of treatment for high blood pressure. One should always remember though that this is a silent killer and should always be monitored by your family doctor.