Knee cartilage and ligament injuries: damage, torn ligaments ,injury and replacements of ligaments.

Replacement Knee cartilage Torn

Knee cartilage and ligament injuries

Knee cartilage and ligament injuries are an epidemic in modern sport. These injuries usually occur when a very high twisting force is applied to a bent knee. If contact sports would not allow the use of studs on boots the injury would probably almost totally disappear. It is only when the foot is fixed firmly to the ground and the body continues to twist fast on it that the injury usually occurs. The patient usually ear s a loud crack in the knee and it collapses. Here on it becomes almost impossible to play as the pain is severe and the knee swells rapidly resulting in its instability. The other common cause for an acute heamoarthrosis following an acute intrinsic injury to the knee is the dislocation of the patella. A careful history and physical examination helps in distinguishing the two conditions. In patella dislocations the patient may have noticed something out of place immediately after the accident or have had the problems before. Sometimes however the patella might remain in that dislocated position. Aspiration of the joint will generally produce dramatic reduction of the pain. If fat globules are found in the aspirate then a fracture should always be suspected.

The treatment of rupture anterior cruciate ligament in children is relatively easy as the anterior cruciate avulses with fragment of bone and can be fixed with a bone screw or with sututres passed through to the front of the tibia. In adults the anterior cruciate tears its central part , where there is no capacity to heal. This does not necessarily mean that surgery to substitute the ligament may be required. In a significant number of patients intense physiotherapy helps in rebuilding the control of the knee to levels where an absence of an anterior cruciate does not hamper performance. In other patients whose performance is hampered through an anterior cruciate injury, it is a perfectly valid option for the patient to decide to modify there lifestyle to cope with the disability. This means for example that might decide to give up contact sport. The surgical option should only be explored once a patient along with his doctor have significantly exhausted the previous two facilities and have still found it difficult. This is because the anterior cruciate replacement surgery is complex and rehabilitation is difficult and there is no evidence in the long term, that functionally the knee will retain its previous stability, or eve if the reconstruction protects the knee from an eventual osteoarthritis. A posterior cruciate injury is usually associated with a hyperextension injury and disruptions of the posterior structures of the knee. Treatment of the knee in a plaster usually allows the posterior capsule to heal up sufficiently. There is then little functional disability despite the fact that the posterior cruciate does not eventually heal. Rupture of the medial collateral ligament occurs when the leg is forced into valgus usually by a blow on the outside of the leg.